Louise Wetherbee Phelps Award -- Lower Division
I have seen many of my friends, past and present, struggle with body image due to societal pressures and media portrayals of women. I believe, however, that genuine beauty lies within.
World-wide the media has become the dominant form of communication. Through television, radio, magazines, song lyrics, and movies; the media and the language used within these sources is able to reach and affect us all, no matter what race, religion, age, economic class, sex, or sexual preference we represent. America, in particular, places much emphasis on these various sources of media to relay to its citizens the cultural standards of normalcy and beauty, and because of this, I propose this question to mainstream society: Does the rhetoric of the media unfairly influence social norms and behaviors, which in turn, affect women and their body images?
Call us the media generation, because no other generation of people seemingly spends more time watching television, reading magazines, watching movies, and listening to the radio. By engaging in these forms of media, viewers form a perception of societal normalcy and beauty portrayed through the intricate rhetorical manipulation of these sources. The media and its language has an imperative role in American societal norms and the stereotype of what people in society should amount to throughout their lifetimes. Analogous to a loaded weapon because of its possible negative and positive affects on a given targeted population, the media has seemingly placed expectations on various groups within our society, labeling them into a general realm of how these groups should be perceived by the rest of America. From these societal norms stem the struggles of many who cannot attain these high, unrealistic standards set by the media and the implications of its rhetoric. Through mainstream magazine advertisements and fringe Internet manifestos, we will take a closer look at the depiction of the American female's stereotypical body image and see the strains placed upon the 95% of the targeted population who cannot achieve this insurmountable aspiration and societal standard of unhealthy living.
Throughout high school I had the opportunity to face the challenge of helping my best friend, Allison, recover from anorexia. I could never understand why she deprived her body of nutrients and starved herself down to a mere 85 pounds on a 5'5" frame. A few weeks ago, I talked to her about exactly why she was drawn to the anorexic mind frame, and how she successfully pulled out of it after a six year struggle.
Her whole life she had been involved in ballet, cheerleading, and swimming. These are all extracurricular activities which involve wearing tight, short, revealing clothing like swimsuits, tiny skirts, or leotards, which reveal every ounce of anything on one's body. When she was little, she would hear her mother tell her that she'd better lose that baby fat because everyone would see it in her outfits she wore in her sports. As she got older, she became more paranoid about her weight because she would be performing for male sports teams and wanted to impress guys by having what she called the "you know Kel; thin, muscular, not-an-ounce-of-fat-to-be-seen look." Allison stated, "I honestly felt the thinner I was, the more beautiful I became; not only to myself, but to others. The less I weighed, the more I felt like the images I would see in magazines and on television. I felt they were my standard of perfection that I had to live up to, and I took it too far." The pictures of professional ballerinas in magazines who appeared to be twig-thin, the no-fat muscular bodies that swimmers strive to achieve, and the glamorous looks of cheerleaders mixed together formed the impetus that led to Allison' s anorexic frame of mind.
With much support from friends, family, and periodic psychiatric visits, she began to realize that her appearance at 85 pounds was anything but beautiful. Even though she currently maintains a normal body weight for her height, anorexia, as Allison said, "is 100% mental and the affects appear 100% physically." She deems this disease as a lifetime struggle and stills dreads daily meals and holidays such as Thanksgiving and Christmas, which have a focus on eating. When I asked her who or what she blamed her eating disorder on, she couldn't pinpoint one source which led to her downfall. She believes that with her mother's influence about losing her baby fat, the revealing outfits she had to wear, the notion she had that guys wanted a thinner girl because that meant she was prettier, and the images she saw and read about in the media all contributed to her anorexic problem.
"After six years of struggling with my body image, I realize that I was trying to achieve a type of beauty that lies only skin deep. Beauty lies within, regardless of your outer appearance-no matter what anyone tells you or what you see or read in the media." By seeing anorexia through Allison's perspective, we can see the pressures that lead to such a lifestyle and how the tolls of achieving this thin frame of mind were affected by the media.
Jean Kilbourne, author of various advertising books dealing with female thinness, observed in a lecture regarding body image and the media,"There is no aspect more pervasive and persuasive than the language used in advertising." With this comment, Kilbourne boldly states that this certain aspect of the media persuades and reaches us all even if we do not realize the pressures being placed upon us. Within advertising and the language used within various media sources, there is an impossible beauty that all females are taught at an early age to try to attain. To conquer and achieve this level of beauty, it takes much time, energy, and money, but none-the-less, it is a female's job to reach this societal perception of normalcy within the American culture. If a woman fails to achieve this pre-conceived notion of beauty, emotions of guilt are linked to her failure. The media's depiction of beauty is the state of beingtruly flawless, which is impossible for anyone to reach unless a female was born genetically with this certain type of body frame, or has developed an eating disorder in order to maintain this level of thinness. Often times, women in advertisements are merely air-brushed to hide their human imperfections or may even be computer-generated. This type of body build for a women isn't humanly feasible because the people behind the advertisements literally had to create this woman by computer!
In the movie Pretty Woman, there are several scenes which reveal a majority of the main actress's, Julia Robert's, body which would appear to most males as a perfect body because she is thin, no fat visible, muscular toned, tall, full-lipped, and fully fills the American standard of beauty in general. What the American population doesn't know is that the body they viewed in this movie wasn't the actual body of Julia Roberts. Roberts' body had too many human imperfections for the public to see her real body, so the producers of the movie used computer graphics to fool the viewer's eye into thinking that this actress naturally had this perfect body. Pretty Woman is only one example of how the media fools society into thinking that this type of body is feasible to attain, when in reality, Roberts' body is merely a fictional, computer-made puzzle, pieced together by graphics and humanly impossible to achieve (Kilbourne).
George Yudice, author of Feeding the Transcendent Body, states that women are being affected by these standards at an earlier age than in prior generations. Self-esteem decreases drastically when females hit adolescence.
The number one wish of girls 11-17 is to lose weight. Four out of every five female fourth-graders have been on a diet before, or currently are on a diet. Twenty-five percent of women in the American population have had or currently do have some kind of eating disorder. Eleven percent of the female college population are bulimic. (29)
With these statistics, there is obviously concrete proof that this image craze is starting at a dangerously young age and this frame of mind is kept throughout a long period time, beginning at puberty. Where does this pressure to have the perfect body come from? Various sources such as family and friends feed into this dilemma, but the images portrayed through the media and language that is used within this particular source visibly and vividly show and say that in order to be acceptable by society, a female must be painstakingly thin.
The body type portrayed in advertisements merely represents 5% of the American population, excluding the other 95% majority of the female population (Kilbourne). This type of body can truly only be obtained through genetics, if one was born this thin, or if a woman develops a severe eating disorder. Most women do not have this v-shape, svelte form. Women are made pear-shaped for child-bearing purposes.
Advertisements, which state that "dieting is harmful," don't encourage stopping dieting; they only say take these supplements to make up for the vitamin deficiencies which come along with starving yourself or bingeing, which in turn, can be just as harmful to a person's health. In the Fat Burner Advertisement, words such as "MAXIMUM POTENCY CHROMIUM PICOLINATE INCLUDED" appear in fluorescent yellow, capital letters. Underneath this bold lettering, in a tiny, white font, appears the phrase "this high-potency formula is all natural." If what is contained inside of Fat Burner is "all natural," then why does one have to ask a chemist what chromium picolinate consists of? How can a chemical that "shows those fat cells no mercy" and is "twice as strong as other brands" be "all natural" and not cause your internal body any harm? This advertisement proves that the rhetoric created by those in the marketing department of Fat Burner's certainly did not have the best interests of those taking this product in mind. With this in mind, we, the American public, are still swayed by the persuasiveness of this rhetoric and continue to buy this product and feed this power-hungry, profit-hungry industry of dieting for unknown reasons.
For centuries, women's bodies have been associated with food: a piece of meat, tomato, peach, and pears, to name a few. If overweight, women are associated with animals that are fat such as pigs, cows, hippos, and horses. In order to avoid being classified as one of these animal names or labeled as having a figure like a tomato or a pear, women feel pressured into dieting and having a thinner figure. As a female, I myself, would never want to be related to such name calling. Through cultural conditioning and family, I have been brought up to believe that in order to be thought of as attractive, you can't be shaped like a pear and eat like a hungry hippo. Successful first impressions stem from an hourglass-like figure and eating like a little bird. To help females burn some of their extra calories from their possible cow-like eating habits, fortunately, there is a $36 billion food advertisement world out there that women can spend money on and read about in order to not fall into what Jean Kilbourne would call these "traps of gaining weight."
Women who do find themselves eating too much or even merely eating a highly caloric food item often times experience guilt because they feel that they may be feeding into the possibility of gaining weight, becoming fat, eating like a hog, and filling out like a tomato or pear. Many advertisements target this emotional side of women because advertising and marketing strategists know that emotions highly affect how we, as females, act and think.
Advertisements certainly play on the emotional appeal of women and encourage females to turn to food for an outlet of a problem. One Haagen-Daaz commercial states a scenario where a woman broke-up with her boyfriend and found solace in a pint of ice-cream, therefore, giving the perception that the emotional needs of a woman can be met by indulging in food. Another Haagen-Daaz advertisement depicts a woman bingeing on a whole pint of ice-cream because she simply cannot stop, which encourages eating disorders. These two advertisements insinuate that when a woman has too much control, she can simply "lose herself" in ice-cream by bingeing.
Other advertisements make over-eating or just eating into a moral dilemma that a woman must face at every meal. By associating fattening foods with words such as "sinful" and "temptation" and healthy foods with words such as "forgiveness" and "salvation," the issues of God and guilt are unfairly brought into deciding what one is able to eat or should eat (Kilbourne).
Juicy Fruit Gum advertisements have focused in on these feelings of guilt associated with a woman eating fattening foods. In an advertisement in the October, 1995 volume of Glamour, the focal point of the advertisement upon first appearance are three large chocolate chip cookies, which consume the entire middle of the full-page ad. Below these cookies, in large, dark font is the phrase "Calorie Discontent." Above the chocolate chip cookies in a medium-sized, black font is a phrase that reads "300 calories." At the top of the advertisement in black, medium-sized writing are the words "10 calories." Below this is a rather large-sized stick of Juicy Fruit gum. Below this stick of gum in large, dark font on the page states "Calorie Content." Below all of the aforementioned, in dark, small font is the phrase "Calories on your mind? If saving calories makes you happy, only Juicy Fruit can satisfy your cravings with a one-of-a-kind mouthwatering aroma and sweet, satisfying taste. All for 10 little calories." Below this statement, with numbers ranging from 1 and ending with twenty, is a tape measure with a phrase underneath of it saying "Juicy Fruit. Ten Sweet Calories. One Sweet Juicy Choice."
My analysis of this advertisement leads me to believe that American culture is extremely "calorie conscious." Because of this, females are trying to fight away their lust for fattening foods, such as the three chocolate chip cookies largely pictured, and replace it with something low calorie, like a piece of Juicy Fruit gum. By focusing on this fact, and revealing the tape measure on the bottom of the page, Wrigley's brilliantly compares the "calorie conscious," representing those who choose the stick of Juicy Fruit gum, to the "calorie unconscious," which represents those who have chosen the chocolate-chip cookies worth 300 calories. By showing the caloric content associated with the two choices of food, this applies the guilt factor on females and makes women think of the 300 calories the next time she reaches for those chocolate chip cookies. Juicy Fruit claims that this 10 calorie stick of gum can satisfy those undeniable cravings females have for fattening foods. With the tape measure on the bottom of the advertisement, with such small numbers ranging from one to twenty, an impossible waist-line to ever possibly achieve, this relays the message to the female audience to not become fat. It implies to society and the female-targeted population to choose the gum versus the chocolate chip cookies by playing on the "calorie conscious" American female culture because of the guilt associated with the "calorie unconscious" option.
Society pressures females into feeling ashamed for having an appetite. When a female is with a male, oftentimes she will pick at her food in order to not be perceived as a pig by the male, heaven-forbid she should have a healthy appetite! It is socially acceptable, however, for a male to be able to eat more and eat whatever he wants and not be considered a pig. A Tombstone Light Pizza advertisement which appears in the November 1995 issue of Glamour states, "He eats a brownie, you eat a rice cake. He eats a juicy burger, you eat a low-fat cuisine. He eats pizza-You eat pizza. FlNALLY-life is fair!!" This advertisement depicts how everything the male is allowed to eat is high in caloric and fat content. If one notices what the female eats, they are diet foods such as rice cakes and low-fat cuisine's. Even though the female finally eats the same thing as her boyfriend, it is still lower in calories and fat because it is "light" pizza. This advertisement implies that the only way the female can eat the same thing as her boyfriend and have it socially acceptable is because it is a light pizza, thus lower in calories and in fat, therefore, justifying her eating this pizza.
Magazine articles targeting the female population which have to do with food also appeal to women by picturing attractive, dream-like men within the ads. A 3 Musketeers advertisement which appears in the March, 1996 volume of Self magazine includes a photo of three tall, dark, and handsome men dressed in classic "musketeer" uniforms with dream-like edges around the picture. On the chests of their apparel lie what appears to be a capital "M" with a cross-like structure running through this capital "M." Their vests are red and blue, their hats and pants of solid black, and blouses of white. The three males have smirks of chivalry and desire on their faces and make direct eye contact with the reader of the advertisement if one chooses to look directly at the photograph. The background within the bleary-edged picture is one of trees and shrubbery, denoting a forest.
Below the photograph lies the largest phrase of the advertisement, which appears in capital, bold font stating "GOD'S GIFT TO WOMEN." Underneath of this huge phrase are three 3 Musketeer miniature candies that appear to be dark chocolate with a light shimmering off of their tops. These three pieces of candy are the next biggest object on the advertisement besides the quote aforementioned. The phrase "Big on Chocolate, Not on Fat," is next largest, in red, making it stand our visually to the reader. "45% Less Fat Than The Average of Leading Chocolate Brands" is next largest, appearing in deep bold letters with italic script. "Delightful little squares of fluffy nougat wrapped in satisfying milk chocolate. Less than 1 gram of fat per piece. 5 grams of fat in a 7 piece serving. Oh the delicious arrogance of it all," appears in the smallest of italic fonts without bold lettering.
Besides all of the phrases mentioned in the above paragraph, a small bag of 3 Musketeers Miniature candies appears in colors of red, white, blue, and silver. Seven miniatures have fallen out of the bag and are wrapped in silver with red, white, and blue stripes. Below this bag of candies described previously, there is a phrase in about 5-point font, the tiniest of words on the whole advertisement stating "Not a low-fat food."
The whole background of this advertisement is one of grayish-silver with gleams of shimmering light cast around the picture of the three males and the three chocolate miniature pieces of candy. This background resembles satin.
By analyzing this advertisement, I can draw several conclusions about the rhetoric created and how it is used to capture its female-targeted audience. By portraying these three tall, dark, and handsome males in a dream-like picture, this implies that women had better eat only light foods such as 3 Musketeer Miniatures to be thin in order to attract this type of man. These men are dressed in colors mainly of red, white, and blue, which possibly could depict the United States colors; eluding to the all-American, good-looking male. On their chests, these men boast a capital "M" and a large cross behind this "M." The "M," standing for "Musketeer," along with the cross behind it, leads this reader to believe that these three men were the chosen ones of God to help a woman choose to eat lighter foods and become thinner, thus the quote "God' s Gift To Women." The language used within the ad obviously pertains to women because the ad uses female terms such as "delightful, little, and fluffy," which appeal to women and make them think that this sweet treat is really low-calorie and low fat.
Apparently there is some deception within this advertisement because the ad states that there is 45% less fat than the average of leading chocolate brands, but in the lower right hand corner of the advertisement, in microscopic type, the words "not a low-fat food" appears. What exactly constitutes a low-fat food, and if this is 45% less fat, than why is it not low-fat? Above this deceptive quote is a bag of 3 Musketeer Miniatures with exactly seven miniature candies fallen out of the bag. These seven candies that have fallen out of the bag could be symbolic of the seven deadly sins possibly. This advertisement draws a female reader into it by enticing her by the looks of these three dream-like men along with the alluring womanly adjectives used and the phrase of 45% less fat. Once again, rhetoric of the media is deceiving to the female audience by appearance and the language used.
From my experiences in college over the past two years, I not only have seen and felt the affects of the media about eating less, but another suppressant used to eat less is smoking. Most of my friends smoke, and I never understood why. I asked 100 Syracuse University, female, middle-upper class, women whether or not they smoked, and if so, why did they chose to smoke. A stunning statistic of 76 out of these 100 females said they did smoke! When asked why, answers varied little. Responses ranged only from stress to maintaining or trying to lose weight by using cigarettes as an appetite suppressant. I pressed onward and asked why they felt they had to suppress their appetites and handle stress by smoking. One female replied, "Everyone feels that women should be slim, and I would die if I gained the dreaded freshman 15! Being fat is looked down upon by guys and even girls for that matter. Smoking helps for stress relief because most people seem to eat when they are stressed, so this way, I don't mess up and use calories I can't afford to spend" (Stein). Another female commented about how magazine advertisements enticed her to try and start smoking because the women pictured looked so confident, sophisticated, were all thin, and beautiful. She felt that "if she would start smoking, she could be and look like them (Siegel)."
Smoking is becoming more of a trend at an earlier age. Smoking is often times a substitute for eating and is as an appetite suppressant. If one notices, all cigarette ads have something to do with body image and being thin: "Slim-n-Sassy, Slim Lights, For a figure no one can deny, reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet. " By using words such as "slim" and "light," the language in these advertisements subliminally imply that if one smokes these cigarettes she will be thin, in control, and able to suppress her appetite . Sixty percent of women started smoking before they were 14 years old, right around puberty, which ironically is when this body image craze seems to start and take control.
A Virginia Slims advertisement appearing in the March, 1996 volume of Allure magazine had a background of an outback adventure. Dressed in a leopard-skin outfit, with a lit cigarette and binoculars in her right hand, is a slim, dark-haired, blue-eyed, red, full-lipped, tall woman who casually applies her lean body weight against a post with her arms crossed in a haughty-like position. In large, white, capital font on a red background to stand out, is the phrase "VIRGINIA SLIMS. YOU'VE COME A LONG WAY, BABY." Tucked away and easily overlooked on the lower right hand corner of the ad is the Surgeon General's Warning which states "Smoking by Pregnant Women May Result in Fetal Injury, Premature Birth, and Low Birth Weight."
My analysis of this advertisement leads me to several conclusions regarding the rhetoric of this advertisement. By the woman in the advertisement being so thin and what our society deems as beautiful, this implies that this is what a woman should look like. If a female doesn't look like this, then she should start smoking these "slim" cigarettes in order to suppress her appetite, which in turn will make her lose weight and attain this perfect body. With the words "You've Come a Long Way, Baby," this implies that the stereotype of a female's body is becoming thinner and thinner through the years, and because this woman is dressed in wild clothing, she has come "a long way" and has broken the good-girl image of generations passed. She looks thin, sexy, self-confident, and in control of herself; exactly what every female in today's society strives for. Because the Surgeon General's Warning is written in such small script and tucked away in the lower corner of the advertisement, this leads me to believe that Virginia Slims probably put this on its ad because it is a requirement of the government for health purposes, and they do not want the consumer, which is targeted to the female population, to focus on the health risks of smoking their product. Virginia Slims appeals to females because of the slim model, the outback-type background, and the subliminal message sent to the viewer of the ad which says, "Smoke this product and you can look and feel like her. Don't worry about the health risks."
Seventy-five percent of normal weight women perceive themselves as overweight. Half of the female American population is currently on a diet. Models of today weigh 23% under their normal body weight, whereas models of two decades ago were only 13% under their normal body weight. Marilyn Monroe, a female actress who was considered to be beautiful in the late 1960's, had some fat on her when she appeared in sitting positions in modeling pictures. Kate Moss, a CK model who is the l990's depiction of beauty, was diagnosed as severely anorexic, and is virtually skin and bones while modeling CK apparel (Kilbourne).
Even though women and their frame of minds are seemingly becoming noticeably thinner due to the media's language and its way of portraying women's bodies, females don't necessarily enjoy living up to or reaching these expectations. Even if a woman reaches her incredibly thin goal weight for herself, maintaining this new body can be a struggle for most. Upon searching the Internet, I found a web site called "the NrrdGrrl manifesto." This cite is a perfect example of a woman's anger towards the media's portrayal of women, their bodies, and the societal expectations that she feels she needs to live up to in order to be acceptable by today's standards.
Upon first glance, the web site appears to be plain; no color, no fancy fonts, and not too many pages to her site. In dark bold letters at the top of her article states "the NrrdGrrl! manifesto." Underneath of the title of her web site, she, I am assuming NrrdGrrl, uses a normal 10-12 point sized type with a plain font, such as the one I am using to type this very paper; nothing flashy to make anything stand out. She uses varied indentations and tab spacing for various sentences and paragraphs. Some of her sentences are long and some are three words long. She quotes some words, asks rhetorical questions, and often times uses profanity throughout her site.
My analysis of the rhetoric leads me to several conclusions which I am able to generalize that the vast population of women feel overall. The only major thing that stands out on the whole page is the bolded "the NrrdGrrl! manifesto." By the spelling of NrrdGrrl and because it is bolded, it leads me to believe how angry she seems. With all of the "r's" in NrrdGrrl, it is as if she is a roaring tiger, growling at society and the media for the pressures placed upon her and women. It is bolded to add power and exclamation to her fuming temper. Her first sentence states "The shit stops here." By using profanity within the first sentence of her article, the reader realizes that she is angry and is making a statement. For centuries, swearing has been deemed as unladylike, and she breaks the mold of that stereotype right from the start to show that she isn't a generalized female in today's society.
NrrdGrrl states "People think I'm 'nice.' People don't think I get mad. I've been 'too' something on almost any given day of my life." I think that women are perceived to be nice, passive, having no temper, and generally agreeable, and this is what she is talking about what she has felt on "almost any given day of her life." She asks why people and society "feel so free to tell you exactly what is wrong with you." And asks rhetorical questions such as "Why do I never feel pretty enough, or sexy enough? Why are standards for women so goddamned unattainable? Who do models need to be airbrushed?" By asking herself these questions, she never replies with answers, and that is because she doesn't seem to have any answers. She is confused and angry by the pressures to be beautiful and thin that have been placed upon her whole life through the media and society.
NrrdGrrl ends her article and argument on a powerful note of blatant buck-the system rhetoric by stating, "I'm a nerd. I'm a geek. I'm a weirdo. I'm giving up. I'm just going to do it my way now cause' there's no way to do it 'their' way and be happy or sane." She seemingly has come to the conclusion that she cannot, no matter how hard she tries, meet the societal demands of beauty. The quoted "their way" implies society or the media's way. She has given up because she cannot maintain her happiness or sanity by trying to achieve this flawless beauty that women have been pushed to conquer.
NrrdGrrl's anger and frustration are felt throughout her zigzagged article of plain, ordinary type, which depict her confused, lost thought pattern about herself, and her ordinary, average outlook on herself. The media and society have pushed her to her limit, and with profanity and growls of anger, she is roaring out against stereotypes of women being thin, passive, and lady-like.
Obviously, the rhetoric of the media does and has had an effect on the perceived body images of females in the American culture through the examples of Allison, the various advertisements that I have analyzed, examples of movies, and the NrrdGrrl! manifesto. In order to change these societal perceptions of what women should look like in the American culture, people must speak out and boycott. Unfortunately in today' s day and age, money seemingly makes the world go 'round, and advertising is a highly profitable area within mainstream society; think about how much time you, personally, spend watching television, listening to the radio and song lyrics, watching movies, reading books and magazines, or surfing the net. As long as advertisers are making money, and as long as we, the American public, are willing to pay to view or hear these various sources of media, the stereotypes will continue on, and the demise of this societal norm of "flawless, impossible beauty" will continue endlessly (Kilbourne). With a continuation of American models becoming thinner and thinner, it makes one wonder where exactly the female body image is heading. Just how far will the media take this trend which feeds societal stereotypes and problems? As the trend continues, women are not only starving inside, but they are seemingly raging inside, too. Isn't it ironic how the media literally starves its' targeted population by creating such persuasive rhetoric, which seemingly suppresses America' s body-image better than any diet pill, light food, and slim cigarette known?
Ellin Abby. "I Was a Fat-Addict." Mademoiselle June 1995: 154-157.
Fat Burner Advertisement. Self March 1996.
I Can't Believe It's Not Butter Spray! Advertisement. Good Housekeeping August 1995.
Juicy Fruit Gum Advertisement. Cosmopolitan September 1995.
Juicy Fruit Gum Advertisement. Glamour October 1995.
Newman, Judith. "Big." Allure March 1996: 156-160.
The NrrdGrrl! Manifesto (http://www.users.interport.net/~'ameliaw/nwdesto.html)
Siegel, Z. Personal Interview. 15 March 1996.
Slim Chances: Advertising and the Obsession With Thinness. Writ./Dir. Jean Kilbourne. Syracuse University Bird Library Media Center, 1996.
Stein, R. Personal Interview. 15 March 1996.
Three Musketeers Advertisement. Self March 1996.
Tombstone Light Pizza Advertisement. Glamour November 1995.
Yudice, George. "Feeding the Transcendent Body." Postmodern Culture September 1990.
Virginia Slims Cigarette Advertisement. Allure March 1996.
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Updated Monday, April 28, 1997.